Research Results

Menopausal symptoms:

Many women experience physical and emotional symptoms during menopause, typically during their mid-40s. This is caused by imbalanced hormones (a lowered production of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone).

Below are common symptoms associated with menopause. They generally occur during the pre-menopausal stage.

  • Irregular mood swings
  • Night sweats
  • Increased anxiety or irritability
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Fatigue and dizziness
  • Hair loss or thinning
  • Difficulty in sleeping, lethargy

Placenta extract helps improve mild menopausal symptoms including vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes, night sweats), psychological symptoms (depression) and somatic symptoms (heart, muscle and joint discomforts)

In a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 50 climacteric Japanese women were randomized 1 : 1 to oral placenta extract (300 mg/day) or placebo. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index (SMI).
Placenta extract group showed significant improvement in the total SMI score after 12 weeks as compared to the placebo group. In addition, the placenta extract group also showed significant improvement in 3 SMI subscores (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms) at 8 and 12 weeks, when compared to initial values at 0 week.

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. 0 week

K Koike et al. Climacteric. 2013 Aug;16(4):447-52

Placenta extract relieves shoulder stiffness in women experiencing menopause

An open-label, randomized, controlled study was conducted on climacteric women with shoulder stiffness. The study subjects received placenta extract orally for 24 weeks and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of shoulder stiffness. Compared to baseline (before treatment), VAS score reduced significantly by 76.4% at the end of treatment, indicating the usefulness of placenta extract as an oral supplement for shoulder stiffness.

K Koike et al. Climacteric. 2013 Aug;16(4):447-52

Postmenopausal osteoporosis:

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by a net bone loss due to an imbalance between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen during menopause and the development of osteoporosis.
Estrogen is a well-known regulator of bone metabolism, postmenopausal osteoporosis and the morbidity – the major health problems in elderly women. Osteoporosis increases susceptibility to bone fractures and reduces quality of life. Worldwide, 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporosis-related fractures in her lifetime.

Placenta extract helps manage postmenopausal osteoporosis

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven to be efficacious in preventing bone loss and reducing the incidence of skeletal fractures in postmenopausal women, but it has several side effects. Hence, other approaches, such as placenta extract has been used as a remedy to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, alkaline phosphate (ALP) was used as a marker of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Placenta extract significantly increased  ALP and bone mineral density.

Skin and Age-defying Benefits

As we age, wrinkles, age spots and skin dryness are inevitable. The skin may also become thinner and lose fat, making it looks less plump and smooth. In addition to age, there are other factors that speed up skin aging:

  • Sunlight
  • Smoking
  • Hormonal Imbalance
  • Stress
  • Alcohol

Placenta extract has significant ant-aging effects:

Placenta extract fights against skin aging

Skin fibroblasts are active skin replacement cells that are responsible for generating collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid, and allowing the skin to recover from an injury. As we age, the number of skin fibroblasts decreases, which is associated with diminished proliferation of these cells. This could lead to deep and fine lines, wrinkles, rough, dry and sagging skin.

This study shows that addition of placenta extract to human fibroblast culture increased cell count by 1.38X and procollagen C peptide (precursor of collagen) by 2.79X at 10 days after administration, when compared to control (BLANK). This suggests that placenta extract stimulates proliferation of human fibroblast as well as facilitates its collagen production to maintain optimal skin health and prevent aging skin.

Placenta extract helps reduce wrinkle widths

1) Reduce degranulation of mast cells

Mast cells are allergy cells responsible for immediate allergic reactions. In the presence of allergens, the mast cells are degranulated, i.e. the mediators (such as histamine) stored inside them are released, triggering undesirable allergic symptoms, such as swelling, itching, redness, sneezing, sickness and respiratory problems.

An in vitro (test tube) study showed that Bioactive Placenta Peptides significantly reduced the degranulation of mast cells compared to control (purified water), implying the anti-allergic action of the Bioactive Placenta Peptides. 

2. Reduce itchiness – an allergy symptom

Histamine is a chemical in the body that causes allergy symptoms, including itchiness. Administration of antihistamine drugs is a typical treatment for allergic reactions. Nonetheless, many of these drugs will trigger drowsiness. 

This study showed that administration of placenta extract significantly reduced the frequency of scratching (a sign of itchiness), when compared to control (purified water). This suggests that placenta extract suppresses the release of histamine, which contributes to the anti-itching effect.

3) Suppress immediate allergy reactions

Compared to control (sterile water), administration of placenta extract reduces the strength of immediate skin allergic reactions, which usually occurs within minutes of exposure.

Bioactive Placenta Peptides help reduce UV-induced skin damage

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is thought to cause premature skin aging and cancer through the production of free radical species. Hence, supplementation with antioxidants should prevent this UV-induced damage caused by free radicals. Placenta extract showed the ability to scavenge free radicals (superoxide anion & singlet oxygen) upon UV irradiation on the skin of mice. This antioxidant protection was 10 times more effective than vitamin E. 

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation increases levels of 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a well-established biomarker of carcinogenesis and oxidative DNA damage in skin epithelial cells. In this in vitro (test tube) study, UVB irradiation increased 8-OHdG levels. However, treatment of Bioactive Placenta Peptides prior to UVB irradiation suppressed the elevated levels of 8-OHdG, to a level that is comparable to no UVB irradiation. This suggests that Bioactive Placenta Peptides help protect against UV-induced skin damage, in which this damage can lead to premature skin ageing. 

Placenta extract reduces skin inflammation

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that catalyses the degradation of hyaluronic acid, which can lead to skin inflammation and subsequently accelerate skin’s premature aging. Placenta extract was shown to have suppressive effects on hyaluronidase activity. This suggests that placenta extract has anti-inflammatory effects, which helps reduce or prevent skin aging.

Emotional Health:

Placenta Peptides help reduce stress

In this test, mice were orally administered with control (purified water) or placenta extract. Their emotional behavior was evaluated 1 hour later with automatic hole-board test for 5 minutes. 

Apparatus for hole-board test

Oral administration of placenta extract significantly increased the number and length of head-dip, indicating anti-anxiety effects of the placenta extract. 

Bioactive Placenta Peptides help reduce anxiety

In this test, mice were orally administered with control (purified water) or Bioactive Placenta Peptides. Their emotional behavior was evaluated 1 hour later with automatic hole-board test for 5 minutes.

The anti-stress effects of placenta extract were demonstrated in another test, in which the mice were induced electric stress and their emotional behavior was evaluated using an elevated plus maze. In this test, placenta extract or control (purified water) was orally administered to mice and they were subjected to electric stress after 50 minutes. The number of entries into the open arm and the duration of stay were evaluated as an anti-stress action, in which increment in both parameters indicates less stress. 

Both parameters were significantly lower in control group. For placenta extract group, number of entries into the open arm decreased to a lesser extent, while there was no change of duration of stay compared to those not subjected to electric stress, indicating the anti-stress effects of placenta extract. 

Men’s Health:

Placenta Peptides help suppress prostate enlargement

Prostate enlargement is a condition associated with ageing and is common is men over 50 years old. The symptoms of prostate enlargement include dribbling urine, frequent urination, inability to urinate or pain or burning during urination. Higher testosterone (male sex hormone) levels may be a prime culprit for prostate enlargement. 

In this study, testosterone was administered to castrated (removed testis) and the weight of prostate was compared for placenta extract and control (non-administration) groups. Compared to control group, prostate weight was reduced by approximately 15% for the placenta extract group, showing that the placenta extract could suppress prostate enlargement. 

Placenta extract helps suppress proliferation of prostate cancer cells

Male sex hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulates proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Hence, lowering DHT levels generally makes prostate cancer cells to shrink or grow more slowly. When placenta extract was added to the human prostate cancer cells in culture media without DHT, the cell count was not affected. For culture media with DHT, cell count was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that placenta extract has DHT suppression effects, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of human prostate cancer cells.  

Vitality, Stamina and Endurance:

Fatigue is a state of mental and physical weakness accompanied by a feeling of sleepiness, irritability and weariness. It can affect the quality of life and disturb daily routines.

 

Placenta extract helps fight fatigue from physical activity

In this study, mice were forced to swim for 60 minutes, which were then suspended on a thin nylon string with both arms hanging on it. Compared to control (purified water), the mice orally administered with placenta extract (1,670mg/kg) showed 30% longer duration of suspension, implying the anti-fatigue effects of the extract.

Placenta extract mitigates protein-energy malnutrition-induced fatigue

Fatigue can be caused by a deficiency of nutrition or immune function. Placenta extract and its constituents regulate protein-energy malnutrition-induced fatigue through improving levels of immunity and decreasing fatigue-related factors. Hence, placenta extract may be a potential agent for a recovery from fatigue.

Han et al. Nutrition. 2013 Nov-Dec;29(11-12):1381-7

Hair Health:

Placenta extract supports healthy hair growth

Study 1: Dermal papilla is a highly active group of cells, which play a crucial role in hair growth cycle by inducing follicle development from the skin to grow a hair. In this study, proliferation effect of placenta extract was confirmed by using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells and the cell count was measured to evaluate cell proliferation. Placenta extract increased proliferation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, indicating its hair growth-promoting effects.

Study 2: Placenta extract markedly improved hair length, number and diameter of hair follicles (HF) compared to control group. Besides, placenta extract may shorten the hair growth cycle.

Placenta extract helps increase depth and size of hair follicles

Placenta extract (B) markedly increased the depth and size of hair follicles, as compared with that of control (C).

Healthy Joints & Muscles:

Rheumatoid arthritis:

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder which causes painful and swelling in joints. Placenta has an anti-inflammatory function, which suppresses an abnormal immune system to relieve the pain of rheumatoid.

 

Placenta extract reduces join pain and swelling

CRP (C-reactive protein) and RF (rheumatoid factor) are used as indices for rheumatoid arthritis. CRP is a specific protein which appears at sites of inflammation and RF is an antibody directed against the body’s own tissue. Data shows that placenta extract reduced CRP and RF over a relatively short period.

 

Gout:

Gout is commonly caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. Bioactive Placenta Peptides were shown to reduce the concentration of uric acid, suggesting its efficacy in mitigating gout conditions. 

Rheumatoid arthritis:

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder which causes painful and swelling in joints. Placenta has an anti-inflammatory function, which suppresses an abnormal immune system to relieve the pain of rheumatoid.

 

Placenta extract reduces join pain and swelling

CRP (C-reactive protein) and RF (rheumatoid factor) are used as indices for rheumatoid arthritis. CRP is a specific protein which appears at sites of inflammation and RF is an antibody directed against the body’s own tissue. Data shows that placenta extract reduced CRP and RF over a relatively short period.

 

Gout:

Gout is commonly caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. Bioactive Placenta Peptides were shown to reduce the concentration of uric acid, suggesting its efficacy in mitigating gout conditions. 

Liver Health

Placenta extract protects against alcohol-induced liver dysfunction

Elevated liver enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)] may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or injured liver cells leak higher than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated liver enzymes on blood tests.

In this test, male mice were induced alcoholic hepatopathy (liver dysfunction) by administering ethanol (5g/kg) 3 times at 12-hour intervals. The amount of ALT and AST in blood was measured as an indicator of liver dysfunction. Placenta extract suppressed the AST increment due to alcohol to a level that is similar to the group not treated with alcohol. Besides, placenta extract also suppressed ALT value by approximately 30% compared to control (purified water). The results suggest that placenta could help reduce alcohol-induced liver dysfunction.

 

Placenta extract supports liver regeneration

In this test, liver regeneration capability was evaluated by monitoring the wet weight of liver from remnant with 70% partial hepatectomy (surgical removal of liver). At 7 days after surgery, the wet weight of the remnant liver of the placenta extract-injected group reached nearly 100%, compared with the untreated group of about 85%. This suggests that placenta extract has beneficial effects on liver regeneration. 

Blood Circulation & Heart Health

Placenta Extract supports healthy blood pressure

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor that causes the narrowing of the blood vessels and elevation of blood pressure. Hence, blocking ACE action could help mitigate high blood pressure. Placenta extract was shown to suppress ACE, suggesting its beneficial effects in reducing elevated blood pressure.

Brain Health

Placenta extract helps improve memory and learning ability

Amnesia is a decline in memory caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and sleep-inducing drugs. In this test, mice subjected to drug-induced amnesia were administered control (saline solution) or placenta extract. Placenta extract significantly suppressed the decrease of the spontaneous alteration behavior rate resulting from the drug treatment. This suggests that placenta extract helps improve memory and learning ability which may be affected by drugs. 

Respiratory Health

Placenta extract supports healthy respiratory system

Nitric oxide (NO) is produced throughout the body, including in the lungs, to combat inflammation and relax tight muscles. High levels of exhaled NO in the breath can indicated the airways are inflamed — one sign of asthma. Asthma causes periods of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. 

Compared to control (purified water), placenta extract reduced NO concentration in the lings. This suggests that placenta extract has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation.